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Of the three basic types of subwoofer enclosures, Ported enclosures have been around much longer than the Sealed or Band pass designs. A ported subwoofer enclosure is basically a speaker mounted in an airtight box that has a 'tuned' hole or port on the face of it.
A tuned port is designed to interact with the speaker and boost the level of sound at the deepest bass frequency. A ported enclosure is about twice as efficient as a Sealed enclosure, but below the tuned frequency of the port, bass output drops off much quicker than a sealed enclosure. This type of subwoofer may need some type of crossover to block out the high frequency sounds.